The (Klingon) Empire Strikes Back

Philippe Verdy verdy_p at
Thu Nov 3 22:29:40 CDT 2016

May be but it is still relevant : what is the purpose of these invented
Kilngon ampersands: aren't they ligatures or abbreviation marks like the
"-que", different from the "et" (&) ligature in Latin ? We have "&" encoded
only because it exists in ASCII and it is used as a distinctive isolated
symbol, But why wouldn't we have the "-que" ligature encoded in Latin, but
we would have two invented ligatures for Klongon ?

2016-11-04 1:51 GMT+01:00 Mark E. Shoulson <mark at>:

> Yes, it isn't unique to Klingon, I never said it was, and who cares that
> Latin also has it??  We weren't talking about Latin!
> ~mark
> On 11/03/2016 08:06 PM, Philippe Verdy wrote:
> 2016-11-04 0:43 GMT+01:00 Mark Shoulson <mark at>:
>> 3. For my part, I've invented a pair of ampersands for Klingon (Klingon
>> has two words for "and": one for joining verbs/sentences and one for
>> joining nouns (the former goes between its "conjunctands", the latter after
>> them)), from ligatures of the letters in question.
> That is not new to Klingon, and it exists also in Classical Latin :
> - the coordinator "et" between words, for simple cases; this translates as
> "and" in English...
> - the "-que" suffix at end of the second word which may be far after the
> first one (which could be in another prior sentence, or implied by the
> context and not given explicitly); this translates as the adverb "also" in
> English... I've seen that suffix abbreviated as a "q" with a tilde above,
> or a slanted tilde mark attached above, or an horizontal tilde crossing the
> leg of the q below... Sorry I can't remember the name of these abbreviation
> marks.
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